I am microbiologist. I have 6years experience of working in excel lab and writing SOPs. For ISO certification of this lab I wrote procedures of different tests and accepted by expert authorities.

Feb 19, 2021 - 0 Minutes read


Enteric fever

There is an increase in resistance in Fluoroquinolone in Salmonella typhi and S. paratyphi A . The minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) of ciprofloxacin, ofloxacin, levofloxacin and gatifloxacin against S. typhi and S. paratyphi A were compared. Fifty blood culture isolates, 25 S. typhi and 25 S. paratyphi A, were studied. The MICs were determined by the agar dilution method. Disc diffusion was done for the fluoroquinolones and other antibiotics. Nalidixic acid resistance was seen in 21/25 S. paratyphi A and 17/25 S. typhi isolates, and these had higher MICs to fluoroquinolones. Five S. typhi and six S. paratyphi A were fully resistant to ciprofloxacin (MIC >2 g/l). There is no multidrug resistance in S. typhi. Enteric fever continues to remain a public health problem in many developing countries, with Salmonella typhi being the main agent and S. paratyphi A infections increasing (Ochiai et al., 2005). Fluoroquinolones achieve high concentrations in the bile, bowel, urinary tract and macrophages. This, coupled with ease of oral administration, has made the quinolones the drugs of choice for enteric fever treatment. Patients with enteric fever have responded to ciprofloxacin and ofloxacin, with more than 90% cure rates. Kadhiravan et al. (2005) reported treatment failures with strains resistant to nalidixic acid and having a reduced susceptibility to ciprofloxacin. High-level ciprofloxacin resistance in S. typhi (Hasan et al., 2005) and S. paratyphi A (Adachi et al., 2005) has also been recently reported. The aim of the present study was to compare the minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) of four fluoroquinolones against S. typhi and S. paratyphi A and to evaluate their therapeutic usefulness.